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  • Anisha S. Matheen

Diagnosing Breast Cancer






Diagnosis Mammogram


A specialised breast X-ray which assists in the investigation of suspicious breast changes. Multiple X-ray pictures must be taken from several different angles to make an accurate diagnosis. This form of mammogram is different from the kind that women are advised to take every so often to medically screen for breast cancer.


Medical screening: The systematic administration of a test to recognise potential patients at significant risk of a specific disease or disorder. Such tests are carried out to identify those in need of further testing or preventative procedures and actions.


Screening mammograms are performed on individuals to look for evidence of cancer within the breast tissue without having experienced any of the typical signs of signals of breast cancer.


Breast MRI


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a form of imaging scan that utilises powerful magnetic fields and radio waves to generate accurate and detailed images of the interior of the body. Healthcare professionals often use the MRI machine to scan and subsequently diagnose various diseases and conditions, examples which include but are not limited to torn ligaments, tumours, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. MRI machines are also used in the diagnosis of breast cancer through emitting magnetic and radio waves to form images of the inside of the brain tissue.




Fig 2.1 INSERT VISUAL AID


Breast Ultrasound


Ultrasound machines include a handheld device that emits sound waves which reflect and bounce off of various layers of body tissue; this process causes the development of images that are displayed on an attached monitor. In the case of breast cancer, the ultrasound is primarily used to differentiate between whether or not a lump is filled with fluid or solid material.




Fig 2.2 INSERT VISUAL AID





Breast Biopsy


A biopsy is a tissue sample extracted from the body for close examination by a team in a laboratory for abnormalities which may indicate a specific disease or medical condition. Medical Professionals often advice taking a biopsy only once initial testing suggests said abnormality which could be distinguished as a mass, lesion or tumour. This procedure is regularly executed when breast cancer is suspected; this enables us to evaluate an abnormal area within the breast tissue to determine whether or not it's cancer. There are multiple different ways in which this procedure can be completed, but we will go into more depth in our diagnosis article.


There are multiple forms of breast biopsy which can be performed, as listed below:








 

Works Cited


Braden, Amy, et al. “Breast Cancer Biomarkers: Risk Assessment, Diagnosis, Prognosis, Prediction of Treatment Efficacy and Toxicity, and Recurrence.” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 20, no. 30, 31 Aug. 2014, pp. 4879–4898, 10.2174/1381612819666131125145517. Accessed 13 Oct. 2020.

“Breast Biopsy - Mayo Clinic.” Www.Mayoclinic.Org, www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/breast-biopsy/about/pac-20384812.

Ferguson, Melissa J. “Multifocal Invasive Mucinous Carcinoma of the Breast.” Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences, vol. 67, no. 2, 23 Jan. 2020, pp. 155–158, 10.1002/jmrs.379. Accessed 13 Oct. 2020.

Kolak, Agnieszka, et al. “Primary and Secondary Prevention of Breast Cancer.” Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM, vol. 24, no. 4, 2017, pp. 549–553, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29284222, 10.26444/aaem/75943.

McDonald, E. S., et al. “Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Breast Cancer.” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 57, no. Supplement_1, 1 Feb. 2016, pp. 9S-16S, 10.2967/jnumed.115.157834.

Saslow, D., et al. “Clinical Breast Examination: Practical Recommendations for Optimizing Performance and Reporting.” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 54, no. 6, 1 Nov. 2004, pp. 327–344, 10.3322/canjclin.54.6.327. Accessed 15 Jan. 2020.

Saunders, Christobel, and Sunil Jassal. Breast Cancer. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009.

Yu, Ying-Hua, et al. “Diagnostic Value of Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy for Breast Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 120, no. 2, 4 Feb. 2010, pp. 469–479, 10.1007/s10549-010-0750-1. Accessed 19 Nov. 2019.


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